Campi Flegrei - Vesuvius - Gulf of Naples Volcanic System
The Phlegreaen Volcanic District (Campi Flegrei Fields) as part of a very active volcanic system is located at the Eastern Tyrrhenian margin on the shelf in Pozzuoli Bay and on land west of the city of Naples (Fig. 1). The area has recently revealed pronounced uplift and subsidence events with rates of several decimeters per year (e.g. de Natale et al., 2001). It is assumed to impose a high geohazard risk to the whole region due to some known high-volume explosive eruptions, which have occurred in Quaternary and historic times. A complicated, nested caldera system is predicted from land morphology, representing different eruptional phases. While the extent, size and shape of the calderas is relatively well known from land observations, investigations of the marine portion are still lacking.
Two large-volume eruptions have created major widespread deposits as the Campania Ignimbrite 41 ky ago and the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) 17 ky ago, while activity is documented as far back as 300’000 years (e.g. Deino et al., 2004). After the NYT event, occasional plinian phases and minor to medium eruptions had formed lava domes. Associated volcanoclastic deposits remain more local and are difficult to identify and distinguish. Prevailing westerly winds concentrated ash deposits to the land area and the Naples Bay.
Natale, Jacopo, Camanni, G., Ferranti, L., Isaia, R., Sacchi, M., Spiess, V., Steinmann, L., & Vitale, S. (2022). Fault systems in the offshore sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy): Implications for nested caldera structure, resurgent dome, and volcano-tectonic evolution. Journal of Structural Geology, 163, 104723. https://doi.org/10.1111/bre.12643.
Natale, Jacopo, Ferranti L., Isaia, R., Marino, C.. Sacchi, M., Spiess, V., Steinmann, L., Vitale, S. (2021) Integrated on‐land‐offshore stratigraphy of the Campi Flegrei caldera: New insights into the volcano‐tectonic evolution in the last 15 kyr. Basin Research, 00, 1-28. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bre.12643.
Sacchi, Marco, Marco, Passaro S., Molisso F., Matano F., Steinmann L., Spiess V., Pepe F., Corradino M., Caccavale M., Tamburrino S., Esposito G., Vallefuoco M., Ventura G. (2020) The holocene marine record of unrest, volcanism, and hydrothermal activity of Campi Flegrei and Somma–Vesuvius. Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei, and Campanian Volcanism, 435-469, https://doi.org/10.1016/C2018-0-00014-6.
Sacchi, Marco, De Natale G., Spiess V., Steinmann L., Acocella V., Corradino M., de Silva S., Fedele A., Geshi N., Kilburn C., Insinga D., Jurado MJ., Molisso F., Petrosino P., Passaro S., Pepe F., Porfido S., Scarpati C., Schmincke HU., Somma R., Sumita M., Tamburrino S., Troise C., Vallefuoco M., Ventura G. (2019) A roadmap for amphibious drilling at the Campi Flegrei caldera: Insights from a MagellanPlus workshop. Scientific Drilling 26, 29-46, https://doi.org/10.5194/sd-26-29-2019.
Steinmann, Lena, Spiess V., Sacchi M. (2018) Post-collapse evolution of a coastal caldera system: Insights from a 3D multichannel seismic survey from the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 349, 83-98, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.09.023. (PDF)
Violante, Crescenzo, Sacchi, M. Spiess, V. Steinmann, L. (2017) Seafloor Response to Large Volcanic Activity and Geohazard Implications in Naples Bay, Southern Italy. Offshore Site Investigation Geotechnics 8th International Conference Proceeding, 11, 265-275, https://doi.org/10.3723/OSIG17.265.
Steinmann, Lena, Spiess V., Sacchi M. (2016) The Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy): formation and evolution in interplay with sea-level variations since the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption at 39 ka. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 327, 361-374, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2016.09.001.
Steinmann, Lena (2016) Reconstruction of volcano-tectonic processes in interplay with sedimentary deposition in the Gulf of Naples (Italy) using a seismoacoustic dataset. Dissertation, xx. pp.. https://media.suub.uni-bremen.de/bitstream/elib/1114/1/00105516-1.pdf.
Cascadia Basin / Costa Rica
Volcanism is a dominating process for the formation of oceanic plates at mid-oceanic ridges. It emplaces lava at the seafloor, introduces dikes and magma chambers at depth and is driving heat transport. Also, a hydrothermal system through penetrating seawater is driven by volcanic systems. While inflowing water significantly cools down the crust, observed as a global phenomenon in young crust at mid-ocean ridges. the water cycles through permeable crust and eventually return to the seafloor.
In sediment covered systems this flow is limited to crustal outcrops. Depending on area, the age of oceanic crust being covered by sediment depends on both biologic productivey in surface waters, and the proximity to other, basically terrigenuous sediment sources from continental erosion.
In the Cascadia Basin, extremely young oceanic crust (<1 Ma) is already covered by sediment and hydrothermal circulation is limited to socalled 'penetrators', which are submarine volcanoes being too high to be fully covered by sediment. Such a system has been studied in greater detail in the Cascadia Basin to better understandcrustal hydrology and its effect on plate coolling. Both research expeditions with R/V Sonne (SO111 and SO14)) as well as several drilling expeditions had been carried out, leading to a good understanding of flow patterns and rates.
Zühlsdorff, Lars, Spiess V. (2006), Sedimentation patterns, folding, and fluid upflow above a buried basement ridge: Results from 2-D and 3-D seismic surveys at the eastern Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B08103, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JB003227 .
Hutnak, Michael, Fisher AT., Zühlsdorff L., Spiess V., Stauffer PH., Gable CW. (2006), Hydrothermal recharge and discharge guided by basement outcrops on 0.7–3.6 Ma seafloor east of the Juan de Fuca Ridge: Observations and numerical models, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 7, Q07O02, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GC001242 .
Zühlsdorff, Lars, Hutnak M., Fisher AT., Spiess V., Davis EE., Nedimovic M., Carbotte S., Villinger H., Becker K. (2005) Site surveys prior to IODP Expedition 301: ImageFlux (SO 149) and RetroFlux (TN116) expeditions and earlier studies. IODP Leg 301 Initial Reports., https://doi:10.2204/iodp.proc.301.102.2005.
Spinelli Glenn A., Zühlsdorff L., Fisher AT., Wheat CG., Mottl M., Spiess V., Giambalvo ER. (2004) Hydrothermal seepage patterns above a buried basement ridge, eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Journal of Geophysical Research-Part B-Solid Earth 109, 1-19, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JB002476.
Fisher, Andrew T., Davis EE., Hutnak M., Spiess V., Zühlsdorff L., Cherkaoui A., Christiansen L., Edwards K., MacDonald R., Villinger H., Mottl MJ., Wheat CG., Becker K. (2003) Hydrothermal recharge and discharge across 50 km guided by seamounts on a young ridge flank, Nature, 421, 618-621, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01352.